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Of the four dental sealants, Delton provided excellent positive predictive value and the best post-sealant negative predictive values. Conclusion In this ex vivo study, dentists were able to detect tooth decay beneath four commonly. Detecting free-mass common -mode motion induced by incident gravitational waves. In this paper we show that information on both the differential and common mode free-mass response to a gravitational wave can provide important information on discriminating the direction of the gravitational wave source and between different theories of gravitation.

The conventional Michelson interferometer scheme only measures the differential free-mass response. By changing the orientation of the beam splitter, it is possible to configure the detector so it is sensitive to the common -mode of the free-mass motion. The proposed interferometer is an adaptation of the Fox-Smith interferometer. A major limitation to the new scheme is its enhanced sensitivity to laser frequency fluctuations over the conventional, and we propose a method of cancelling these fluctuations.

The configuration could be used in parallel to the conventional differential detection scheme with a significant sensitivity and bandwidth. The method does not require iterations. It is very robust and easy to implement both in 2D and 3D case.

Few studies have assessed viral contamination in the rooms of hospital wards. This cross-sectional study evaluated the air and objects in patient-occupied rooms in pediatric wards for the presence of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Swab samples were collected from the surfaces of 5 different types of objects in the patients' rooms.

All air and swab samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the presence of the above pathogens. All pathogens except enterovirus were detected in the air, on the objects, or in both locations in the patients' rooms. Both adenovirus and M pneumoniae were detected at very high rates, with high concentrations, on all sampled objects.

Appropriate infection control measures should be strictly implemented when caring for such patients. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that infects Hepialidae caterpillars, mummifying the larvae and producing characteristic fruiting bodies stromata that are processed into one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines TCM.

The product commands a very high price due to a high demand but a very limited supply. Adulteration with other fungi is a common problem and there is a need to test preparation for the presence of the correct fungus. In the current study, a PCR-based approach for the identification of O. The segments is bp in size and is likely to be amplified even in materials where processing led to DNA fragmentation. Primer development was based on the alignment of sequence data generated from a total of 89 samples of O.

Species-specific primer pairs were also developed and tested for detection of the common adulterants, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Ophiocordyceps nutans. The collection of primers developed in the present study will be useful for the authentication of preparation claiming to only contain O.

The present work investigates the electrochemical determination of cocaine in the presence of levamisole, one of the most common adulterants found in cocaine street samples. Levamisole misleads cocaine color tests, giving a blue color positive test even in the absence of cocaine. Moreover, the electrochemical detection of cocaine is also affected by the presence of levamisole, with a suppression of the oxidation signal of cocaine. When levamisole is present in the sample in ratios higher than , the cocaine signal is no longer detected , thus leading to false negative results.

Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to investigate if the signal suppression is due to the formation of a complex between cocaine and levamisole in bulk solution. Strategies to eliminate this suppressing effect are further suggested in this manuscript. Both these strategies have been successfully applied for the simultaneous detection of cocaine and levamisole in three street samples on unmodified graphite disposable electrodes.

Kullback-Leibler divergence for detection of rare haplotype common disease association. Rare haplotypes may tag rare causal variants of common diseases; hence, detection of such rare haplotypes may also contribute to our understanding of complex disease etiology. Because rare haplotypes frequently result from common single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs , focusing on rare haplotypes is much more economical compared with using rare single-nucleotide variants SNVs from sequencing, as SNPs are available and 'free' from already amassed genome-wide studies.

Further, associated haplotypes may shed light on the underlying disease causal mechanism, a feat unmatched by SNV-based collapsing methods. In recent years, data mining approaches have been adapted to detect rare haplotype association. However, as they rely on an assumed underlying disease model and require the specification of a null haplotype, results can be erroneous if such assumptions are violated. In this paper, we present a haplotype association method based on Kullback-Leibler divergence hapKL for case-control samples.

The idea is to compare haplotype frequencies for the cases versus the controls by computing symmetrical divergence measures. An important property of such measures is that both the frequencies and logarithms of the frequencies contribute in parallel, thus balancing the contributions from rare and common , and accommodating both deleterious and protective, haplotypes. A simulation study under various scenarios shows that hapKL has well-controlled type I error rates and good power compared with existing data mining methods.

Purpose: To report our experience in the use of percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones detected in the post-cholecystectomy period. Results: The procedure was successful in 42 cases. In three patients, stones were crushed in the common bile duct and pushed as fragments into the duodenum. In all cases transient adverse effects were observed. All cases were checked with ultrasonography for 6 months after the procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous extraction of common bile duct stones is an effective method of treatment with a high success rate,low complication rate and shorter hospital stay.

It may serve as an alternative method in cases where endoscopic removal of stones fails. Detection of ingested nitromethane and reliable creatinine assessment using multiple common analytical methods. Erroneous creatinine elevation often triggers extensive testing, leads to inaccurate diagnoses, and delayed or inappropriate medical interventions.

Multiple reports in the literature identify "enzymatic assays" as an alternative method to detect the true value of creatinine, but this ambiguity does not help providers translate what type of enzymatic assay testing can be done in real time to determine if there is indeed false elevation.

Nitromethane was detected and semi-quantified using a common clinical toxic alcohol analysis method, and quantified by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, nitromethane is detectable and quantifiable using routine alcohols gas chromatography analysis and by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study evaluated the compatibility of the most common enhancement methods and lifting techniques with DNA profiling. Emphasis is placed on modern lifting techniques i.

A total of fingerprints were deposited on a glass surface, enhanced, lifted, and processed for DNA typing. DNA could be extracted and profiled for all the powders and lifts tested and from both groomed fingerprints and natural prints with no significant difference in the percentage of profile recovered. DNA profiles could also be obtained from historical fingerprint lifts Conflict detection and resolution rely on a combination of common and distinct cognitive control networks.

Cognitive control can be activated by stimulus-stimulus S-S and stimulus-response S-R conflicts. However, whether cognitive control is domain-general or domain-specific remains unclear. To deepen the understanding of the functional organization of cognitive control networks, we conducted activation likelihood estimation ALE from neuroimaging studies to examine brain activation in conflict-related tasks.

We observed that fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks were commonly engaged by S-S and S-R conflicts, showing a domain-general pattern. In addition, S-S conflicts specifically activated distinct brain regions to a greater degree. These regions were implicated in the processing of the semantic-relevant attribute, including the inferior frontal cortex IFC , superior parietal cortex SPC , superior occipital cortex SOC , and right anterior cingulate cortex ACC.

By contrast, S-R conflicts specifically activated the left thalamus, middle frontal cortex MFC , and right SPC, which were associated with detecting response conflict and orienting spatial attention. These findings suggest that conflict detection and resolution involve a combination of domain-general and domain-specific cognitive control mechanisms.

Orthopoxvirus detection in environmental specimens during suspected bioterror attacks: inhibitory influences of common household products. After terrorists attacked the United States in , the appearance of letters and other objects containing powdery substances with unknown potentials for biological threat focused attention on the speed, sensitivity, and reliability of diagnostic methods.

This study summarizes the abilities and limitations of real-time PCR, electron microscopy EM , and virus isolation when used to detect potential bioweapons. In particular, we investigated the inhibitory influences of different common household products present in environmental specimens on PCR yield, EM detection , and virus isolation. We used vaccinia virus as a model for orthopoxviruses by spiking it into specimens.

In the second part of the study, we describe modifications of diagnostic methods to overcome inhibitory effects. A variety of PCR amplification enhancers, DNA extraction protocols, and applications of internal controls were evaluated to improve diagnostic simplicity, speed, and reliability. As a result, we strongly recommend using at least two different frontline techniques in parallel, e. A positive result obtained by any one of these techniques should be followed by a biological method to confirm the putative diagnosis.

Confirmatory methods include virus isolation followed by an agent-specific immunofluorescence assay to confirm the presence of replication-competent particles. CHEK2 is a tumor suppressor gene, and the mutations affecting the functionality of the protein product increase cancer risk in various organs. The elevated risk, in a significant percentage of cases, is determined by the occurrence of one of the four most common mutations in the CHEK2 gene, including c. IT , c. We have developed and validated a rapid and effective method for their detection based on high-resolution melting analysis and comparative-high-resolution melting, a novel approach enabling simultaneous detection of copy number variations.

The analysis is performed in two polymerase chain reactions followed by melting analysis, without any additional reagents or handling other than that used in standard high-resolution melting. Validation of the method was conducted in a group of patients with diagnosed breast cancer, a group of unrelated patients with familial history of cancer associated with the CHEK2 gene mutations, and a person control group.

The results of the analyses for all three groups were fully consistent with the results from other methods. The method we have developed improves the identification of the CHEK2 mutation carriers, reduces the cost of such analyses, as well as facilitates their implementation. Along with the increased efficiency, the method maintains accuracy and reliability comparable to other more labor-consuming techniques.

A new cultivation independent approach to detect and monitor common Trichoderma species in soils. A set of primers was developed for the detection , identification and quantification of common Trichoderma species in soil samples. Based on a broad range master alignment primers were derived to amplify an approximate bp fragment comprising the internal transcribed spacer region 1 ITS 1 , 5.

The primer set was applied to test strains as well as community DNA isolated from arable and forest soil. For all tested isolates the corresponding internal transcribed spacer regions of Trichoderma spp. Analysis of a clone library established for an arable site showed that all amplified sequences originated exclusively from Trichoderma species mainly being representatives of the Clades Hamatum, Harzianum and Pachybasioides and comprising most of the species known for biocontrol ability.

Detection of knockdown resistance mutations in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius Hemiptera: Cimicidae , in Australia. Pyrethroid resistance in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. An important resistance mechanism is via knockdown resistance kdr mutations, notably VL and LI. Information regarding this kdr-type resistance mechanism is unknown in Australia.

This study aims to examine the status of kdr mutations in Australian C. Several modern field-collected strains and museum-preserved reference collections of Australian C. The 'Adelaide' strain and samples from the preserved reference collections revealed no known kdr mutations. A novel mutation IF was apparent in the insecticide-resistant 'Adelaide' strain, one strain from Perth with LI and the majority of the reference collection specimens.

The novel mutation IF may be a kdr mutation but appeared to contribute less resistance to the pyrethroids than the VL and LI mutations. The detection of high frequencies of kdr mutations indicates that kdr-type resistance is widespread across Australia. Hence, there should be a reduced reliance on pyrethroid insecticides and an integrated management approach for the control of C.

Detection of common carotid artery stenosis using duplex ultrasonography: a validation study with computed tomographic angiography. Severe stenosis of the common carotid artery CCA , while uncommon, is associated with increased risk of transient ischemic attack and stroke. To date, no validated duplex ultrasound criteria have been established for grading the severity of CCA stenosis.

One study was excluded because the CTA was technically inadequate, whereas another was excluded because the patient underwent bilateral CCA stenting. Thus, the data set included 62 patients and vessels. Bland-Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between two measures of luminal reduction measured by CTA: percent diameter stenosis and percent area stenosis.

Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory IRT method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…. Major depressive disorder MDD has become a leading contributor to the global burden of disease; however, there are currently no reliable biological markers or physiological measurements for efficiently and effectively dissecting the heterogeneity of MDD.

The KEFB-CSP first filters the multi-channel raw EEG signals into a set of frequency sub-bands covering the range from theta to gamma bands, then spatially transforms the EEG signals of each sub-band from the original sensor space to a new space where the new signals i. Twelve patients with MDD and twelve healthy controls participated in this study, and from each participant we collected 54 resting-state EEGs of 6 s length 5 min and 24 s in total. The results also reveal that the 8 electrodes from the temporal areas gave higher accuracies than other scalp areas.

We also designed a voting-based leave-one-participant-out procedure to test the participant-independent individual classification accuracy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in common bean: their discovery and genotyping using a multiplex detection system. The objectives of this study were to discover SNPs in common bean comparing sequences from coding and non-coding regions obtained from Genbank and genomic DNA and to compare sequencing resu Linkage disequilibrium among commonly genotyped SNP and variants detected from bull sequence.

Genomic prediction utilizing causal variants could increase selection accuracy above that achieved with SNP genotyped by commercial assays. A number of variants detected from sequencing influential sires are likely to be causal, but noticable improvements in prediction accuracy using imputed sequen Broadly targeted multiprobe QPCR for detection of coronaviruses: Coronavirus is common among mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos.

Coronaviruses CoVs can cause trivial or fatal disease in humans and in animals. Detection methods for a wide range of CoVs are needed, to understand viral evolution, host range, transmission and maintenance in reservoirs. A new concept, "Multiprobe QPCR", which uses a balanced mixture of competing discrete non- or moderately degenerated nuclease degradable TaqMan probes was employed.

Degenerate primers, previously published, and the new probes, were from a conserved stretch of open reading frame 1b, encoding the replicase. This multiprobe design reduced the degree of probe degeneration, which otherwise decreases the sensitivity, and allowed a preliminary classification of the amplified sequence directly from the QPCR trace.

The split probe strategy allowed detection of down to 10 viral nucleic acid equivalents of CoV from all known CoV groups. Evaluation was with reference CoV strains, synthetic targets, human respiratory samples and avian fecal samples. Infectious-Bronchitis-Virus IBV -related variants were found in 7 of 35 sample pools, from wild mallards Anas platyrhynchos.

Ducks may spread and harbour CoVs. Detection of common diarrhea-causing pathogens in Northern Taiwan by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Conventional methods for identifying gastroenteritis pathogens are time consuming, more likely to result in a false-negative, rely on personnel with diagnostic expertise, and are dependent on the specimen status. Alternatively, molecular diagnostic methods permit the rapid, simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens with high sensitivity and specificity.

From July to April , clinical fecal samples were collected from patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis. All specimens were tested using conventional diagnostic techniques following physicians' orders as well as with the xTAG GPP. Furthermore, 48 pathogens in 23 patients Of which, Because the detection rates using multiplex PCR are higher than conventional methods, and some pediatric pathogens could only be detected by multiplex PCR, this approach may be useful in rapidly diagnosing diarrheal disease in children and facilitating treatment initiation.

Further studies are necessary to determine if multiplex PCR improves patient outcomes and reduces costs. Abstract Conventional methods for identifying gastroenteritis pathogens are time consuming, more likely to result in a false-negative, rely on personnel with diagnostic expertise, and are dependent on the specimen status. Network analysis to detect common strategies in Italian foreign direct investment. In this paper we reconstruct and discuss the network of Italian firms investing abroad, exploiting information from complex network analysis.

This method, detecting the key nodes of the system both in terms of firms and countries of destination , allows us to single out the linkages among firms without ex-ante priors. Investigation of common fluorophores for the detection of nitrated explosives by fluorescence quenching. Previous studies have indicated that nitrated explosives may be detected by fluorescence quenching of pyrene and related compounds.

The use of pyrene, however, invokes numerous health and waste disposal hazards. In the present study, ten safer fluorophores are identified for quenching detection of target nitrated compounds. Initially, Stern-Volmer constants are measured for each fluorophore with nitrobenzene and 4-nitrotoluene to determine the sensitivity of the quenching interaction.

For quenching constants greater than 50 M -1 , sensitivity and selectivity are investigated further using an extended set of target quenchers. Nitromethane, nitrobenzene, 4-nitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene are chosen to represent nitrated explosives and their degradation products; aniline, benzoic acid, and phenol are chosen to represent potential interfering compounds. Among the fluorophores investigated, purpurin, malachite green, and phenol red demonstrate the greatest sensitivity and selectivity for nitrated compounds.

Correlation of the quenching rate constants for these fluorophores to Rehm-Weller theory suggests an electron-transfer quenching mechanism. As a result of the large quenching constants, purpurin, malachite green, and phenol red are the most promising for future detection of nitrated explosives via fluorescence quenching.

Competitive FRET-aptamer-based detection of methylphosphonic acid, a common nerve agent metabolite. Competitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer FRET -aptamer-based assay formats are described for one-step detection of methylphosphonic acid MPA; a metabolite of several organophosphorus OP nerve agents.

AminoMPA was attached to tosyl-magnetic beads and used for DNA aptamer selection from which one dominant aptamer sequence emerged. Two different FRET approaches were attempted. Following 3-dimensional 3-D , molecular modeling of the aptamer-MPA complex, a series of three fluoresceinated aptamers labeled at positions 50, 51, and 52 in the putative optimal binding pocket were synthesized.

Both approaches yielded low microgram per milliliter detection limits for MPA with generally low levels of cross-reactivity for unrelated compounds. However, the data suggest a pattern of traits that may effect the direction lights on or off and intensity of the FRET.

Development of a panel of recombinase polymerase amplification assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection pathogens. To develop and evaluate the performance of a panel of isothermal real-time recombinase polymerase amplification RPA assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection UTI pathogens. The analytical and clinical validity of RPA for the rapid and sensitive detection of common UTI pathogens was established. Rapid identification of the causative pathogens of UTIs can be valuable in preventing serious complications by helping avoid the empirical treatment necessitated by traditional urine culture's h turnaround time.

The routine and widespread use of RPA to supplement or replace culture-based methods could profoundly impact UTI management and the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Single-trial detection of visual evoked potentials by common spatial patterns and wavelet filtering for brain-computer interface. Event-related potentials ERPs are widely used in brain-computer interface BCI systems as input signals conveying a subject's intention. A fast and reliable single-trial ERP detection method can be used to develop a BCI system with both high speed and high accuracy.

However, most of single-trial ERP detection methods are developed for offline EEG analysis and thus have a high computational complexity and need manual operations. Therefore, they are not applicable to practical BCI systems, which require a low-complexity and automatic ERP detection method. Ultrasound detection of cavitation as a phenomenon common to intervention devices causing tissue ablation.

Bach, David S. Cavitation previously has been observed in association with ultrasonic angioplasty and high- frequency rotational atherectomy. This study evaluates the production of cavitation accompanying the use of several catheter-based devices under development or in current use in the practice of interventional cardiology.

Catheters were examined in an in vitro model, and cavitation was evaluated using standard ultrasound imaging equipment. Cavitation was detected with each of the devices that effects tissue ablation, but not tissue resection. Devices produced characteristic patterns of cavitation dependent on the mode of energy release of the device.

The size, but not the intensity, of the cavitation effect was proportional to the energy output of the devices. The precise role of cavitation in the mechanism of tissue ablation remains uncertain. Short non-coding RNAs as bacteria species identifiers detected by surface plasmon resonance enhanced common path interferometry.

Small non-coding RNA sequences have recently been discovered as unique identifiers of certain bacterial species, raising the possibility that they can be used as highly specific Biowarfare Agent detection markers in automated field deployable integrated detection systems. Because they are present in high abundance they could allow genomic based bacterial species identification without the need for pre-assay amplification.

Further, a direct detection method would obviate the need for chemical labeling, enabling a rapid, efficient, high sensitivity mechanism for bacterial detection. Surface Plasmon Resonance enhanced Common Path Interferometry SPR-CPI is a potentially market disruptive, high sensitivity dual technology that allows real-time direct multiplex measurement of biomolecule interactions, including small molecules, nucleic acids, proteins, and microbes.

The measurement is performed on a microarray of discrete 2-dimensional areas functionalized with biomolecule capture reagents, allowing simultaneous measurement of up to separate analytes. The optical beam encompasses the entire microarray, allowing a solid state detector system with no scanning requirement.

Output consists of simultaneous voltage measurements proportional to the phase differences resulting from the refractive index changes from each microarray feature, and is automatically processed and displayed graphically or delivered to a decision making algorithm, enabling a fully automatic detection system capable of rapid detection and quantification of small nucleic acids at extremely sensitive levels.

Proof-of-concept experiments on model systems and cell culture samples have demonstrated utility of the system, and efforts are in. Versatile common instrumentation for optical detection of pH and dissolved oxygen. The recent trend toward use of disposable and miniature bioreactors requires the use of appropriate sensors.

These sensors are often interrogated using a specialized opto-electronic transducer that is designed around the optical sensor. In this contribution, we are presenting a new class of opto-electronic transducers that are usable with several different chemical sensors without the need to switch the optics or hardware when changing the type of the chemical sensor. This versatile instrumentation is capable of seamlessly switching between the pH and DO measurement modes and is capable of auto recognition of the sensor type.

The principle of ratiometric fluorescence is used for pH measurements, and that of fluorescence lifetime for DO measurements. An approach to obtain identical calibrations between several devices is also presented. The described hardware constitutes common instrumentation for measuring either pH or DO and has been tested in actual bioprocesses. It has been found adequate for continuous bioprocess monitoring.

Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins Delphinus delphis stranded along the Galician coast Northwest Spain. The ubiquitous protozoan parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium have been detected from many species of captive and free-living wildlife, representing most mammalian orders.

Twenty species of marine mammals have been reported to inhabit Galician waters and the region has one of the highest rates of stranding in Europe. Evidence from stranding, reported by-catches and sightings, suggests that the common dolphin Delphinus delphis is the most abundant cetacean on the Galician coast Northwest Spain. The objective of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize isolates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium obtained from common dolphins stranded in this area. In two samples, co-infection by both parasites was observed.

The molecular characterization revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A genotypes A1 and A2 and B and Cryptosporidium parvum in these samples. This constitutes the first study in which the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium has been investigated in common dolphins on the European Atlantic coast, and it is also the first report of C. Our findings indicate that these animals could act as reservoir of these waterborne parasites or could be victims of the contamination originated by anthropogenic activities.

Detection of Aeromonas caviae in the common housefly Musca domestica by culture and polymerase chain reaction. Aeromonas caviae has been implicated in diarrhoeal disease of livestock and humans. The potential role of houseflies in the epidemiology of this pathogen was investigated by examining the prevalence of A.

All isolates cultured from houseflies were identified as A. Faeces from cows and pigs at the farms also were positive for A. Introduction: Pulmonary thromboembolism PTE is the most serious manifestation of thromboembolic disease.

In all of them echosonography of abdomen and pelvis was done, also the examination by angiologist, and in patients with indications echosonography of the heart and Color Doppler of leg veins was made. We analysed risk and etiologic factors for PTE in each patient.

Results: In treated patients with PTE risk factors were found in or Conclusion: PTE is very serious disease that very often has fatal prognosis, and can develop with previously entirely healthy people, and as soon as we become suspicious of its presence we have to made appropriate diagnostic procedures and include appropriate therapy. We can after look for risk and etiologic factors and try to influence them. Introduction: Acute exacerbation of COPD AECOPD may be triggered by infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants; the cause of about one-third of exacerbations cannot be identified.

Each patient was required to give two sputum for bacterial examination. The results of sputum bacterial culture findings are expressed in absolute number and percentage of examined patients. So there is the need to do a sputum bacterial culture examination in each patient with AECOPD and with appropriate antibiotics to contribute to curing of them.

Echogenicity based approach to detect , segment and track the common carotid artery in 2D ultrasound images. Automatic detection and segmentation of the common carotid artery in transverse ultrasound US images of the thyroid gland play a vital role in the success of US guided intervention procedures. We first segment the hypoechoic anatomical regions of interest using local phase and energy in the input image.

We then make use of a Hessian based blob like analysis to detect the carotid within the segmented hypoechoic regions. The carotid artery is segmented by making use of least squares ellipse fit for the edge points around the detected carotid candidate. Experiments performed on a multivendor dataset of 41 images show that the proposed algorithm can segment the carotid artery with high sensitivity Further experiments on a public database containing images of the carotid artery showed that the proposed algorithm can achieve a detection accuracy of Introduction: Community acquired pneumonia CAP is the most common infective pulmonary disease.

Material and methods: This is the retrospective analysis. Each patient gave sputum 3 days in a row when admitted to hospital. Sputum has been examined: bacterial culture with antibiotics sensitivity, Gram stain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; in cases with high temperature blood cultures were done; when we were suspicious about bronchial carcinoma bronchoscopy with BAL bronchoalveolar lavage was done.

We show analyzed patients according to age, sex, whether they had pneumonia or bronchopneumonia, bacteria isolated in sputum and in BAL. Results: patients with CAP were treated in four-year period males and females. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms GMOs detection.

To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat Triticum aestivum L. DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines.

GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

Essential limitations of the standard THz Time Domain Spectroscopy TDS , which lead to false detection of dangerous and neutral substances in commonly used materials, are demonstrated using the physical experiment with chocolate under real conditions as well as with semiconductors under laboratory conditions. To overcome this disadvantage, we propose using the time-dependent spectrum of the THz pulse, transmitted through or reflected from a substance.

For quality assessment of the standard substance absorption frequency presence in the signal under analysis, we use time-dependent integral correlation criteria. The influence of aperture placed in front of the sample on spectral properties of silicon wafers with different resistivity is demonstrated as well. Provide up-to-date detection rates for common mental disorders CMD and examine patient service-use since the Preferred Doctor scheme was introduced to France in , with patients encouraged to register with and consult a family practitioner FP of their choice.

Study of consecutive patients consulting 38 FPs in the Montpellier region, replicating a study performed before the scheme. For each patient, FPs completed a questionnaire capturing psychiatric caseness. Of those with a CMD, This increased with CMD severity and comorbidity. Detected cases were more likely to be consulting their Preferred Doctor They declared more visits to psychiatrists There was no association with consultation frequency or doctor-shopping, which both declined between the two studies.

The CMD detection rate is relatively high, with no increase compared to our previous study, despite a decline in doctor-shopping. An explanation is the same high proportion of patients visiting their usual FP on the survey-day at both periods, suggesting a limited impact of the scheme on care continuity. FP action taken highlights the importance of improving detection for providing care to patients with CMDs.

Objective: Provide up-to-date detection rates for common mental disorders CMD and examine patient service-use since the Preferred Doctor scheme was introduced to France in , with patients encouraged to register with and consult a family practitioner FP of their choice. Methods: Study of consecutive patients consulting 38 FPs in the Montpellier region, replicating a study performed before the scheme.

Results: Conclusion: The CMD detection rate is relatively high, with no increase compared to our previous study, despite a decline in doctor-shopping. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using common single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs amassed in genome-wide association studies to investigate rare haplotype effects on complex diseases.

Evidence has suggested that rare haplotypes may tag rare causal single-nucleotide variants, making SNP-based rare haplotype analysis not only cost effective, but also more valuable for detecting causal variants. Although a number of methods for detecting rare haplotype association have been proposed in recent years, they are population based and thus susceptible to population stratification.

By choosing appropriate prior distribution, effect sizes of unassociated haplotypes can be shrunk toward zero, allowing for more precise estimation of associated haplotypes, especially those that are rare, thereby achieving greater detection power. We evaluate famLBL using simulation to gauge its type I error and power. Compared with its population counterpart, LBL, highlights famLBL's robustness property in the presence of population substructure.

Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals. Human memory T cells that cross-react with epitopes from unrelated viruses can potentially modulate immune responses to subsequent infections by a phenomenon termed heterologous immunity. However, it is unclear whether similarities in structure rather than sequence underpin heterologous T cell cross-reactivity.

Thus, despite the ubiquitous nature of these human viruses and the dominant immune response directed toward the selected epitopes, heterologous virus-specific T cell cross-reactivity was not detected. This suggests that either heterologous immunity is not as common as previously reported, or that it requires a very specific biological context to develop and be clinically relevant. Effects of scale of movement, detection probability, and true population density on common methods of estimating population density.

Knowledge of population density is necessary for effective management and conservation of wildlife, yet rarely are estimators compared in their robustness to effects of ecological and observational processes, which can greatly influence accuracy and precision of density estimates. For this study, we simulate biological and observational processes using empirical data to assess effects of animal scale of movement, true population density, and probability of detection on common density estimators.

We also apply common data collection and analytical techniques in the field and evaluate their ability to estimate density of a globally widespread species. The large influence of scale of movement on estimator accuracy emphasizes the importance of effective post-hoc calculation of area sampled or use of methods that implicitly account for spatial variation. In particular, scale of movement impacted estimators substantially, such that area covered and spacing of detectors e.

Background Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients. Methods Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Diseases were detected using an established strict screening protocol. Results Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was Obstructive sleep apnea OSA was the most common , accounting for Endocrine hypertension accounted for Those who smoke, those who are obese, and those who have diabetes accounted for There were overlapping conditions in secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension.

Conclusion Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients. Since the control rate of blood pressure is lower in mainland China, the aim of this study is to investigate the proportion of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension in hypertensive patients.

Data on consecutive patients with hypertension who visited the Hypertension Center. Detection rate of secondary causes and coexisting diseases of hypertension was Findings from the current study suggest an increasing frequency of secondary forms of hypertension, highlighting the burden of OSA and PA in hypertensive patients.

Since the most common species of AA is the amino terminal portion produced by cleavage between residues 76 and 77 of SAA AA76 , the presence of AA76 in tissues could be a consequence of AA amyloid deposition. This study assessed the diagnostic significance of the detection of AA76 for AA amyloidosis using two different approaches.

Fixed mucosal sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry using a newly developed antibody recognizing the carboxyl terminal end of AA76 anti-AA The non-fixed materials from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat were subjected to immunoblotting for detection of the size of AA AA76 was not detected either by immunohistochemistry or by immunoblot in the materials from patients in whom AA amyloidosis had been ruled out.

In the abdominal fat, the immunoblot detected AA76 in 8 materials from 8 already diagnosed patients and did not in 1 patient whose gastroduodenal mucosa was negative. In conclusion, the detection of AA76 may alter the ability to diagnose AA amyloidosis. In immunohistochemistry for fixed specimens, the new anti-AA76 antibody can improve the specificity. Immunoblot for non-fixed materials, which can considerably improve the sensitivity, should be beneficial for small materials like abdominal fat.

A population-based screening program for early detection of common cancers among women in India - methodology and interim results. Cancers of the uterine cervix, breast, and oral cavity accounted for ,, ,, and 24, cases, respectively, and were responsible for The major objectives were to create awareness regarding common cancers among women, to detect pre-cancers of the uterine cervix and oral cavity, and early cancers of the breast, uterine cervix, and oral cavity, by conducting screening with simple, low-cost technology, within the community, and to facilitate confirmation of diagnosis among the screen positives and treatment and follow-up among the diagnosed cases.

This is a community-based screening program for early detection of breast, uterine cervix, and oral cancers, being implemented among the socioeconomically disadvantaged women in Mumbai, India. The process involves selection of clusters, household surveys, health education, and screening the eligible women for breast, uterine cervix, and oral cancers, by primary healthcare workers, at a temporarily set-up clinic within the community.

The program is planned to cover a , disadvantaged population in five years. Twenty-one thousand and fifteen people, with eligible women, have been covered to date. Twenty-seven oral pre-cancers, 25 cervix pre-cancers, one invasive cancer of the breast, two of the cervix, and one oral cavity cancer have been diagnosed among the screened women and all of them have complied with the treatment.

The program is raising awareness about the common cancers and harms of tobacco among the disadvantaged women population in Mumbai. It is also helping in detecting pre-cancers and cancers among asymptomatic women and is assisting them in receiving treatment. Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data.

Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios.

However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods.

Fusion genes generated from chromosomal translocation play an important role in hematological malignancies. Detection of fusion genes currently employ use of either conventional RT-PCR methods or fluorescent in situ hybridization FISH , where both methods involve tedious methodologies and require prior characterization of chromosomal translocation events as determined by cytogenetic analysis.

In this study, we describe a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR qRT-PCR -based multi-fusion gene screening method with the capacity to detect 22 fusion genes commonly found in leukemia. This method does not require pre-characterization of gene translocation events, thereby facilitating immediate diagnosis and therapeutic management.

We performed fluorescent qRT-PCR F-qRT-PCR using a commercially-available multi-fusion gene detection kit on a patient cohort of individuals comprising cases diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia AML for initial evaluation; remaining patients within the cohort were assayed for confirmatory diagnosis. Overall gene fusion was detected in The overall concordance rate was calculated to be We describe the use of a F-qRT-PCR-based multi-fusion gene screening method as an efficient one-step diagnostic procedure as an.

Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus DENV in wild animals.

Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites bat flies and their common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico. We detected Flavivirus sequences in 38 pools of ectoparasites Diptera: Streblidae, Strebla wiedemanni and Trichobius parasiticus and 8 tissue samples of D.

Although this study supports other reports of DENV detection in bats and arthropods other than Aedes mosquitoes, the role of these ectoparasitic flies and of hematophagous bats in the epidemiology of DENV still warrants further investigation. Using species sensitivity distribution approach to assess the risks of commonly detected agricultural pesticides to Australia's tropical freshwater ecosystems.

Thanks to BrowserStack for providing us with a free account which lets us support old browsers like IE8. The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

Last updated 7 years ago by esailija. Join us on stackoverflow , the mailing list or chat on IRC Introduction Bluebird is a fully featured promise library with focus on innovative features and performance See the bluebird website for further documentation, references and instructions. Note Promises in Node. Questions and issues The github issue tracker is only for bug reports and feature requests.

Thanks Thanks to BrowserStack for providing us with a free account which lets us support old browsers like IE8. Current Tags 3. Maintainers 1. Today 13,

TOULOUSE VS PSG BETTING EXPERT SPORTS

One of the things that came with patch 3. Rather than having to collect marks of honor from various battle grounds to buy certain items, everything will now be priced in honor points. For those of us with a pile of marks still in our currency tab, we can turn those in for honor points at the rate of 1 mark for honor. Before the change, you needed 90 marks of honor to buy one of the special mounts from the mount vendor.

So, in my simplistic view of the world, turning in 90 marks ought to at least get me close to buying one of those very same mounts now that they are all priced in honor. Only the price of those mounts is 50, honor points.

Turning in 90 marks of honor only gets me to 16, honor points, or exactly one third of the price of the mount. What would be the harm? We all earned those marks of honor. On the other side of the coin, Blizzard relented on the idea of halving the amount of honor awarded for the weekly Wintergrasp quests.

That has been the source for the vast majority of my honor points in any case. And they still offer up Wintergrasp marks of honor, which can be turned in for specific items. I got home last night and found that my download was complete. The Star Trek Online client was ready to install. At some point after the server came up, I logged in. I got to see the Cryptic and Atari logos as well as the cool loading screen.

But then again, it was the first night of open beta for a popular game. Problems are to be expected. It was persistent enough that I began to wonder if it was some sort of replay of the UDP issue I was having with Pirates of the Burning Sea way back when.

However, a check of the forums showed that other people were having the same issue. But World of Warcraft was there for me. I got on just in time to run Wintergrasp and call it a night. I was up for Wintergrasp the other day and ended up being involved in an odd battle. There are 11 vehicles rolling towards the keep. Not catapults, but demolishers and siege engines. At some point between the kick off and that point, 11 members of the horde team managed to get promoted to lieutenant and roll almost all the way to the keep.

More than 11 actually, since at least one siege engine has gone down in that picture. Usually in the morning battles in which I get involved, the first minutes is spent standing around at the front gate of the keep trying to kill enough people so you can get the rank gain that allows you to pilot first catapults then siege engines and demolishers. In fact, one of the most effective keep defenses I ever saw was when the horde side simply refused to come out and play, denying us kills and thus denying us vehicles.

Once we got a vehicle or two, they would pop out, concentrate on that vehicle, then duck back again. But then there was the picture above. How did they do it? Is there another way to get promoted to lieutenant besides killing opposition players? To get the Epic achievement you have to equip something with an item level of at least in all of your key equipment slots.

Instead, the Twilight Cadre chief of research, Potshot , discovered that for maximum honor gain, we should run Wintergrasp to do the weekly quests it offers. Plus you get honor during the battle and Wintergrasp marks of honor. And then I figured out that the quests were no weekly, but had a five day timer on them plus a reset day. Every Tuesday morning all of the quests are reset so you can get them.

And then Tuesday rolls around and you can run them all again. And so Vikund ran a lot of Wintergrasp. Well, not that much, but more than he likely would have otherwise. It helps that I find Wintergrasp fun. It has an interesting dynamic and to win as the defender you really have to work hard or outnumber the other side. Getting out and attacking wins and holding back in defense loses. And with all that honor, he was able to buy epic PvP equipment to outfit himself.

Three cheers for the welfare epic state! Of course, that took weeks to accomplish. To bring that time down you can just save up about 50K honor points, go to the honor shop, buy an item, equip it, unequip it, sell it back to the vendor, then buy the next piece. And the gear is kind of ugly, at least for paladins. But it sure boosted his DPS and, in a self-sustaining loop, made him more competitive in PvP so I still run Wintergrasp when I see it is up just for fun.

Skronk had picked up 80 earlier and Ula was closing in, so we decided to run around a do some daily quests and whatever happened to pop up. It only drops as part of one of the cooking daily quests, and so far it has eluded me. Then it was noticed that Wintergrasp was starting in just a few minutes. It is inevitably an hour or more away whenever I think to check on it. Skronk and I queued up and jumped in for our first ever experience in that battleground. The Alliance lost.

I did get to roll around as a gunner in a siege engine for a bit, and blew up quite a bit of stuff that fell within range. We managed to complete a few of the quests that were offered up in the zone along the way, including the destruction of three Horde siege engines.

I had to finish off that last one on foot. We then joined up with Ula who had picked up level 80 in the mean time, and ran some daily quests in Icecrown where we got to experience the new, multiple Ula effect. In turning in daily quests I hit another achievement along with the meta achievement for being exalted with both the Argent Dawn and the Argent Crusade.

Meanwhile Earl was out grinding some other daily quests and mining to save up for the Jeeves repair bot , another engineering marvel. He actually saved up enough to make it last night. Of course, now he is broke again. More daily quests! And then we wrapped up the night around the Argent Tournament. Earl and Skronk were just starting off while Vikund, already an exalted champion of Stormwind, is looking to add Gnomergen to his achievements so he can ride around on a mechanostrider.

Battle at the walls of the keep. This is not the path to success. A new expansion comes out and things change. Last night, prime time, I was in the most pathetic Wintergrasp ever. Our raid group. And we won. Go figure. Cracked Door. I am a veteran of Wintergrasp. I can prove it. I have the achievement. So I must be an expert on Wintergrasp, right?

Hrmm… maybe not. But Wintergrasp has vehicles and guns. I do much better with heavy ranged weapons. And Wintergrasp has a simple goal. At least on my server. And then something odd started happening. Hey diddle-diddle, straight up the middle. Horde - Secret Plan A. Horde - Secret Plan B. Vikund covering the first breach. Horde - Secret Plan Z. Therein lies the problem for me. That seems to be a pretty small return for a mark of honor. My logic is as follows. Color me disappointed. I ran the installer.

That went well. I logged in and let it patch. Also good. And then I was told that the server was down, but that it would be up soon. No big deal. Loading Screen Engaged! Yes I am. And I can prove it. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.

PubMed Central. The most commonly found fingermarks at crime scenes are latent and, thus, an efficient method for detecting latent fingermarks is very important. However, traditional developing techniques have drawbacks such as low detection sensitivity, high background interference, complicated operation, and high toxicity. To tackle this challenge, we employed fluorescent NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles UCNPs , which can fluoresce visible light when excited by nm human-safe near-infrared light, to stain the latent fingermarks on various substrate surfaces.

The UCNPs were successfully used as a novel fluorescent label for the detection of latent fingermarks with high sensitivity, low background, high efficiency, and low toxicity on various substrates including non-infiltrating materials glass, marble, aluminum alloy sheets, stainless steel sheets, aluminum foils, and plastic cards , semi-infiltrating materials floor leathers, ceramic tiles, wood floor, and painted wood , and infiltrating materials such as various types of papers.

This work shows that UCNPs are a versatile fluorescent label for the facile detection of fingermarks on virtually any material, enabling their practical applications in forensic sciences. These explosives also could be detected in latent marks lifted from six common surfaces paper, plastic bag, metal drinks can, wood laminate, adhesive tape and white ceramic tile whereas no explosive could be detected in equivalent pre-dusted marks on the surface of a commercial lifting tape by the DART-MS method due to high background interference from the tape material.

The presence of TNT and Tetryl could be detected in pre-dusted latent fingermarks on a commercial lifting tape for up to 29 days sealed and stored under ambient conditions. Proteomics goes forensic: Detection and mapping of blood signatures in fingermarks.

This method, at a proof of concept stage, builds upon recently published work demonstrating the opportunity to profile and identify multiple blood signatures in bloodstains via a bottom up proteomic approach.

The present protocol addresses the limitation of the previously developed profiling method with respect to destructivity; destructivity should be avoided for evidence such as blood fingermarks , where the ridge detail must be preserved in order to provide the associative link between the biometric information and the events of bloodshed. Using a blood mark reference model, trypsin concentration and spraying conditions have been optimised within the technical constraints of the depositor eventually employed; the application of MALDI-MSI and Ion Mobility MS have enabled the detection , confirmation and visualisation of blood signatures directly onto the ridge pattern.

These results are to be considered a first insight into a method eventually informing investigations and judicial debates of violent crimes in which the reliable and non-destructive detection and mapping of blood in fingermarks is paramount to reconstruct the events of bloodshed. KGaA, Weinheim. A competitive enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative detection of cocaine from banknotes and latent fingermarks. A sensitive and versatile competitive enzyme immunoassay cEIA has been developed for the quantitative detection of cocaine in complex forensic samples.

Polyclonal anti-cocaine antibody was purified from serum and deposited onto microtiter plates. The concentration of the cocaine antibody adsorbed onto the plates, and the dilution of the cocaine-HRP hapten were both studied to achieve an optimised immunoassay. The method was successfully used to quantify cocaine in extracts taken from both paper currency and latent fingermarks.

The limit of detection LOD of 0. The results obtained from both techniques were statistically similar, suggesting that the immunoassay was unaffected by cross-reactivity with potentially interfering compounds. The cEIA was used also for the detection of cocaine in extracts from latent fingermarks.

The results obtained were compared to the cocaine concentrations detected in oral fluid sampled from the same individual. Using the cEIA, we have shown, for the first time, that endogeneously excreted cocaine can be detected and quantified from a single latent fingermark. Additionally, it has been shown that the presence of cocaine, at similar concentrations, in more than one latent fingermark from the same individual can be linked with those concentrations found in oral fluid.

These results show that detection of drugs in latent fingermarks could directly indicate whether an individual has consumed the drug. The specificity and feasibility of measuring low concentrations of cocaine in complex forensic samples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the assay. The immunoassay presents a simple and cost. The detection and mapping of illicit drugs and metabolites in latent fingermarks would provide intelligence that is beneficial for both police investigations and court cases.

This study investigated MALDI MS detection and mapping capabilities for a large range of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in fingermarks ; the detection and mapping of a mixture of these drugs in marks, with and without prior development with cyanoacrylate fuming or Vacuum Metal Deposition, was also examined.

Our findings indicate the versatility of MALDI technology and its ability to retrieve chemical intelligence either by detecting the compounds investigated or by using their ion signals to reconstruct 2D maps of fingermark ridge details. Substituted naphthoquinones as novel amino acid sensitive reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks on paper surfaces. In this paper, we present our preliminary studies into naphthoquinones as novel reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks on paper.

The selected compounds were 1,4-dihydroxynaphthoic acid, 1,2-naphthoquinonesulfonate, 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. All of the tested compounds yielded purple-brown visible fingermarks , which also exhibited photoluminescence when illuminated with a high intensity filtered light source at nm and viewed through red goggles. Luminescence spectrophotometry revealed differences in photoluminescence characteristics for fingermarks developed with the different naphthoquinones, with excitation over the range nm.

Luminescence spectrophotometry of developed lysine, glycine and serine spots on paper was used to confirm that the naphthoquinones were reacting with amino acids in the latent fingermark. The synthesized samples showed intense green emission using nm diode laser as an excitation source. Because of excellent property of luminescence in green regime the sample is used to detect the latent fingermark on a porous glass surface. The synthesized phosphor has shown intense green emission upon nm excitation.

High-contrast latent fingermarks on some difficult semi-porous and non-porous surfaces under nm diode laser excitation were developed through powder dusting and colloidal solution spraying techniques and the results are compared with the commercial green luminescent fingermark powder. The latent fingermarks were developed on transparent biological glass slides , single-color aluminum foil and multicolor plywood, plastic bottle and book cover page background surfaces.

Fingermark ridge drift. Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges.

Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion eccrine and sebaceous , substrate glass and polystyrene , and degrees of exposure to natural light darkness, shade, and direct light indoors.

Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks.

A pyrene formulation for fluorometric visualization of latent fingermarks. Present work is conducted to demonstrate the use of pyrene for the development of latent fingermarks. Pyrene formulation with binders can be efficiently used for developing latent fingermarks on porous, non-porous and semi-porous surfaces. The effectiveness of pyrene formulation for the detection of latent fingermarks present on a large variety of objects was systematically and comparatively carried out.

To optimize the working formulation, studies were carried out using different pyrene concentrations followed by various substrate study, time dependent study, temperature study, depleted fingermark development and the stability of the proposed formulation. When illuminated at nm, the developed fingermarks showed clear, high contrast primary, secondary and tertiary level ridge details.

This work reveals that the fluorescent molecules having high quantum yield are a versatile fluorescent label and can find their applications in forensic latent fingermark development. Silver-assisted laser desorption ionization AgLDI imaging mass spectrometry IMS has been demonstrated to be a useful technology for fingermark analysis allowing for the detection of several classes of endogenous as well as exogenous compounds.

Ideally, in IMS analyses, the fingermarks are deposited under controlled conditions on metallized conductive target slides. However, in forensic investigations, fingermarks are often found on a variety of nonconductive surfaces. A sputtered silver layer renders the target surface conductive, which allows the analyses of insulating surfaces by time-of-flight IMS.

Ultimately, the major consideration when developing analytical methods for the analysis of latent fingermarks is their capability to be incorporated within forensic standard operational procedures. Numerous endogenous compounds including fatty acids, cholesterol, squalene, wax esters, triglycerides and several exogenous substances were detected and imaged.

Here, we show that silver sputtering can provide visual enhancements of fingerprint patterns after FET procedures through different scenarios in which AgLDI IMS can contribute to forensic investigations. However, their potential applications in forensic science, latent fingermark detection in particular, are still being investigated.

In this contribution, SMSEDs were successfully employed to latent fingermarks on a variety of non-porous and semi-porous surfaces, including aluminum foil, porcelain, glass, painted wood, colored paper, and leather. All the results illustrated that this luminescent powder, as a long-lasting phosphorescence material LLP , was an ideal time-resolved detection reagent of fingermark for elimination of background interferences from various difficult substrates, and offered a good contrast to allow their identification without the need to enhance the results compared to nanosized organic fluorescent powder.

High contrast two-photon imaging of fingermarks. Optically-acquired fingermarks are widely used as evidence across law enforcement agencies as well as in the courts of law. A common technique for visualizing latent fingermarks on nonporous surfaces consists of cyanoacrylate fuming of the fingerprint material, followed by impregnation with a fluorescent dye, which under ultra violet UV illumination makes the fingermarks visible and thus accessible for digital recording.

However, there exist critical circumstances, when the image quality is compromised due to high background scattering, high auto-fluorescence of the substrate material, or other detrimental photo-physical and photo-chemical effects such as light-induced damage to the sample. Infrared laser ablation coupled to vacuum capture was employed to collect material from fingermarks deposited on surfaces of different porosity and roughness. Ablation and capture of standards from fingermarks was demonstrated on glass, plastic, aluminum, and cardboard surfaces.

Using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization MALDI , it was possible to detect caffeine after spiking with amounts as low as 1 ng. MALDI detection of condom lubricants and detection of antibacterial peptides from an antiseptic cream was demonstrated. Detection of explosives from fingermarks left on plastic surfaces as well as from direct deposition on the same surface using gas chromatography mass spectrometry GC-MS was shown. Chemical analysis of latent fingermarks , "touch chemistry," has the potential of providing intelligence or forensically relevant information.

There were two main purposes of this research: 1 develop effective laboratory methods for detecting drugs and explosives in fingermark residues and 2 determine the feasibility of detecting drugs and explosives after casual contact with pills, powders, and residues. Further, synthetic latent print reference pads were evaluated as mimics of natural fingermark residue to determine if the pads could be used for method development and quality control.

However, the pads were useful for designing experiments and setting instrumental parameters. Based on the natural fingermark residue experiments, handling whole or broken pills did not transfer sufficient quantities of drugs to allow for definitive detection. Transferring drugs or explosives in the form of powders and residues was successful for preparing analytes for detection after contact with fingers and deposition of fingermark residue. One downfall to handling powders was that the analyte particles were easily spread beyond the original fingermark during development.

Analyte particles were confined in the original fingermark when using transfer residues. Patel, Ekta; Clench, Malcolm R. Despite recent improvements to in situ proteolysis strategies, a higher efficiency is still needed to increase both the number of peptides detected and the associated ion intensity, leading to a complete and reliable set of biomarkers for diagnostic or prognostic purposes.

In the study presented here, an extract of a systematic study is illustrated investigating a range of surfactants assisting trypsin proteolytic activity. Method development was trialled on fingermarks ; this specimen results from a transfer of sweat from an individual's fingertip to a surface upon contact. As sweat carries a plethora of biomolecules, including peptides and proteins, fingermarks are, potentially, a very valuable specimen for non-invasive prognostic or diagnostic screening.

However, intact detection bears low sensitivity and does not allow species identification; therefore, a shotgun proteomic approach was employed involving in situ proteolysis. Data demonstrate that in fingermarks , further improvements to the existing method can be achieved using MEGA-8 as surfactant in higher percentages as well as combinations of different detergents. Also, for the first time, Rapigest SF, normally used in solution digestions, has been shown to successfully work also for in situ proteolysis.

Visualising substrate- fingermark interactions: Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of amino acid reagent development on cellulose substrates. Most spectroscopic studies of the reaction products formed by ninhydrin, 1,2-indanedione-zinc Ind-Zn and 1,8-diazafluorenone DFO when reacted with amino acids or latent fingermarks on paper substrates are focused on visible absorption or luminescence spectroscopy.

In addition, structural elucidation studies are typically limited to solution-based mass spectrometry or liquid nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy, which does not provide an accurate representation of the fingermark development process on common paper substrates. The research presented in this article demonstrates that solid-state carbon magic angle spinning NMR 13 C-MAS-NMR is a technique that can not only be utilised for structural studies of fingermark enhancement reagents, but is a promising technique for characterising the effect of paper chemistry on fingermark deposition and enhancement.

The latter opens up a research area that has been under-explored to date but has the potential to improve our understanding of how fingermark secretions and enhancement reagents interact with paper substrates. Optical properties of drug metabolites in latent fingermarks. Drug metabolites usually have structures of split-ring resonators SRRs , which might lead to negative permittivity and permeability in electromagnetic field.

As a result, in the UV-vis region, the latent fingermarks images of drug addicts and non drug users are inverse. The optical properties of latent fingermarks are quite different between drug addicts and non-drug users. This is a technic superiority for crime scene investigation to distinguish them.

In this paper, we calculate the permittivity and permeability of drug metabolites using tight-binding model. The latent fingermarks of smokers and non-smokers are given as an example. The thermal visualisation of latent fingermarks on metallic surfaces. Recent published research has lead to improved techniques for recovering latent fingermarks from metallic surfaces. The present study corroborates and extends some of the work carried out by Bond [], but an alternative mechanism is proposed for the thermal visualisation of fingermarks based on differential oxidation and the production of interference colours that improve contrast.

Fingermarks treated at low temperature could be reheated to enhance recovery, but an upper temperature limit occurs beyond which the mark degrades. The mechanism of enhancement is discussed. There are a number of studies discussing recent developments of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate process. The bags were split into three and after treatment with the three techniques a comparable number of fingermarks were detected by each technique average of fingermarks.

Solid-state acquisition of fingermark topology using dense columnar thin films. Various vacuum techniques are employed to develop fingermarks on evidentiary items. In this work, a vacuum was used to deposit columnar thin films CTFs on untreated, cyanoacrylate-fumed or dusted fingermarks on a limited selection of nonporous surfaces microscope glass slides and evidence tape. CTF deposition was not attempted on fingermarks deposited on porous surfaces.

The fingermarks were placed in a vacuum chamber with the fingermark side facing an evaporating source boat containing either chalcogenide glass or MgF 2. The results show that it is possible to capture fingermark topology using CTFs on selected untreated, vacuumed cyanoacrylate-fumed or black powder-dusted nonporous surfaces. Additionally, the results suggested this might be a mechanism to help elucidate the sequence of deposition.

The Reed-Stanton press rig for the generation of reproducible fingermarks : Towards a standardised methodology for fingermark research. Variability is due to changes in the chemical composition of the fingermarks between different donors and within the same donor, as well as to differential contact time, pressure and angle. When validating a method or comparing it with existing ones, it is not always possible to account for this type of variability.

One way to compensate for these issues is to employ, in the early stages of the method development, a device generating reproducible fingermarks. Here the authors present their take on such device, as well as quantitatively describing its performance and benefits against the manual production of marks.

Finally a short application is illustrated for the use of this device, at the method developmental stages, in an emerging area of fingerprinting research concerning the retrieval of chemical intelligence from fingermarks. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. An update on MALDI mass spectrometry based technology for the analysis of fingermarks - stepping into operational deployment.

Suspect profiling here is no longer based on behavioural science but complements this discipline and the investigations by detecting and visualising the molecular make-up of fingermarks onto the identifying ridges. This forensic opportunity provides the link between the biometric information ridge detail and the corpus delicti or intelligence on the circumstances of the crime.

In , a review was published covering the research work and developments of four years supported by the Home Office, UK, and the local regional Police with some insights and comparison into similar research being reported employing other mass spectrometric techniques. The present review is an extensive update on the MALDI MS based methods' achievements, limitations and work in progress in fingermark analysis; it also offers an outlook on further necessary research into this subject. The main highlights are the increased number of possible information retrievable around a suspect and the more extended compatibility of this technology.

The latter has allowed MALDI MS based methods to integrate well with current forensic fingerprinting, leading to the investigation of real police casework. Comparison of the columnar-thin-film and vacuum-metal-deposition techniques to develop sebaceous fingermarks on nonporous substrates.

Both the columnar-thin-film CTF and the vacuum-metal-deposition VMD techniques for visualizing sebaceous fingermarks require the deposition of a material thereon in a vacuum chamber. Despite that similarity, there are many differences between the two techniques.

The film deposited with the CTF technique has a columnar morphology, but the film deposited with the VMD technique comprises discrete islands. A split-print methodology on a variety of fingermarked substrates was used to determine that the CTF technique is superior for developing fingermarks on clear sandwich bags and partial bloody fingermarks on stainless steel.

Both techniques are similar in their ability to develop fingermarks on glass but the CTF technique yields higher contrast. Neither technique worked well for fingermarks on black garbage bags. As fingermarks are one of the most widely used forms of identification in forensic cases, it is important that maximum ridge detail be obtained in order to allow for comparison.

The proposed methodology was able to obtain both physical and chemical information from fingermarks deposited in a range of scenarios including; different note areas, depletion series, aged samples and following conventional FETs. The analysis of forensically important molecular targets within these fingermarks was also explored, focussing specifically on cocaine.

The ability of MALDI-MS to provide ridge detail and chemical information highlights the forensic applicability of this technique and potential for the analysis of fingermarks deposited onto this problematic surface. A novel method for the photographic recovery of fingermark impressions from ammunition cases using digital imaging. The photographic preservation of fingermark impression evidence found on ammunition cases remains problematic due to the cylindrical shape of the deposition substrate preventing complete capture of the impression in a single image.

A novel method was developed for the photographic recovery of fingermarks from curved surfaces using digital imaging. The process involves the digital construction of a complete impression image made from several different images captured from multiple camera perspectives.

Fingermark impressions deposited onto 9-mm and 0. The results suggest that this method may be successfully used to recover fingermark impression evidence from the surfaces of ammunition cases or other similar cylindrical surfaces. Observations on the effects of image processing functions on fingermark data in the Fourier domain.

One of the image processing functions used for the enhancement of laten fingermark images is the Fourier transform. This paper describes some effects of spatial resolution, zero-filling and windowing on fingermark data in the Fourier domain. It is shown that with an understanding of the fingermark structure it is possible to determine the approximate prosition of the frequency data in the Fourier domain corresponding to the fingermark image detail.

The effect of attenuation of frequency data on a zero-filled image is shown to be different to the same attenuation on a non-zero-filled image. The effects of windowing spatial data on the frequency data are also highlighted and compared with the same data after the application of a Hanning window.

Development of latent fingermarks on thermal paper: preliminary investigation into use of iodine fuming. Thermal paper finds its extensive use in the modern day life and could act as a vital piece of physical evidence carrying latent fingermarks. A large number of citations are available in literature suggesting various techniques to develop these marks but all are suffering with one or the other drawbacks such as complex and cumbersome procedure, pre- or post-treatment, background coloration and efficiency to develop aged fingermarks.

In present study, a very simple and novel method involving iodine fuming has been suggested to develop fingermarks which were not only permanent but also without any background coloration. In this study an attempt has been made to explain the reaction mechanism of the process.

In case of different types of thermal papers, presence of different substituents on leuco dye lactone ring structure resulted in development of different colored fingermarks upon reaction with iodine. Sebaceous material laden marks have been found to be more intensely developed as compared to eccrine marks, and the difference was more pronounced in case of aged fingermarks.

Thermal development of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces--further observations and refinements. Fingermarks can also be developed in this way on other cellulose-based substrates such as wood and cotton fabric, though ridge detail is difficult to obtain in the latter case.

Fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that the phenomena observed during the thermal development of fingermarks can be reproduced simply by heating untreated white copy paper or filter paper, or these papers treated with solutions of sodium chloride or alanine. There is no evidence to suggest that the observed fluorescence of fingermarks heated on paper is due to a reaction of fingermark constituents on or with the paper. Instead, we maintain that the ridge contrast observed first as fluorescence, and later as brown charring, is simply an acceleration of the thermal degradation of the paper.

Thermal degradation of cellulose, a major constituent of paper and wood, is known to give rise to a fluorescent product if sufficient oxygen is available []. However, the absence of atmospheric oxygen has only a slight effect on the thermal development of fingermarks , indicating that there is sufficient oxygen already present in paper to allow the formation of the fluorescent and charred products.

In a depletion study comparing thermal development of fingermarks on paper with development using ninhydrin, the thermal technique was found to be as sensitive as ninhydrin for six out of seven donors. When thermal development was used in sequence with ninhydrin and DFO, it was found that only fingermarks that had been developed to the fluorescent stage a few seconds of heating could subsequently be developed with the other reagents.

In the reverse sequence, no useful further development was noted for fingermarks that were. The interaction of fingermark deposits on metal surfaces and potential ways for visualisation. The interaction of fingermark deposits on metals has been examined by a variety of techniques. Visualisation by film growth has been the main area of investigation through: thermal oxidation, anodising, peroxide solution, and the interaction with vapour of iodine and ammonium sulphide.

Corrosion of the underlying metal has also been examined as an alternative means of visualisation. Confocal microscopy was used to look at the film thickness and corrosion products around the prints. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion of X-rays SEM-EDX examined a number of metal samples to investigate film growth and the elemental distribution. The observations suggest that differential oxidation was occurring as well as corrosion into the metal.

Fingermark deposits on metals can corrode into the metal depending on the reactivity of the metal and leave a recoverable mark. However, fingermark deposits can also alter the rate of chemical reaction of the substrate metal by oxidation. In some cases organic matter can inhibit reaction, both when forming an oxide layer and when corroding the metal. However, signs of third level detail from pore contact may also be visible and the monovalent ions from salts could also influence film growth.

Whilst further work would need to be carried out to decide whether any of these techniques may have application in fingermark recovery, this study does suggest that fingermarks on metals may be recoverable after incidents such as fires or immersion in water. Beyond the ridge pattern: multi-informative analysis of latent fingermarks by MALDI mass spectrometry. After over a century, fingerprints are still one of the most powerful means of biometric identification.

The suspect is identified through matching the ridge pattern and local characteristics of the ridge pattern minutiae. In all of these instances it would be very desirable to have a technology able to provide additional information from a fingermark exploiting its endogenous and exogenous chemical content.

This opportunity could potentially provide new investigative leads, especially when the fingermark comparison and match process fails. Here, a review on the pioneering use and development of MALDI MSI for the analysis of latent fingermarks is presented along with the latest achievements on the forensic intelligence retrievable. Additional fingermarks were visualised on the polymer banknotes following the subsequent use of reflected infrared imaging and lifting techniques, and with the benefit of these techniques taken into consideration, the aforementioned processes remained amongst the most effective overall.

Preliminary work using planted fingermarks and split depletions were performed to identify the optimum vacuum fuming conditions. None of the marks by the vacuum process could be observed visually; however, a significant number of marks were detected by fluorescence after BY40 staining.

The number of marks visual and fluorescent was counted after each treatment with a substantial increase in the number of detected marks in the second and third treatments of the process. The increased detection rate after the double Lumicyano process was unexpected and may have important implications.

Latent fingermark visualisation using reduced-pressure sublimation of copper phthalocyanine. Preliminary experiments on a limited selection of surfaces including paper, plastic and ceramic tiles were carried out using a simple apparatus consisting of a vacuum desiccator and a resistive heater.

CuPc from the gas phase condenses preferentially on fingermark deposits, revealing deep blue patterns with excellent ridge detail clarity on light coloured surfaces. The technique is shown to be most effective on porous surfaces such as paper, but relatively ineffective on non-porous ceramic and plastic surfaces. Commonality of drug-associated adverse events detected by 4 commonly used data mining algorithms. Data mining algorithms have been developed for the quantitative detection of drug-associated adverse events signals from a large database on spontaneously reported adverse events.

In the present study, the commonality of signals detected by 4 commonly used data mining algorithms was examined. A total of 2,, reports were retrieved from the public release of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database between and The deletion of duplicated submissions and revision of arbitrary drug names resulted in a reduction in the number of reports to 1,, The EBGM method was the most conservative among the 4 methods examined, which suggested its better suitability for pharmacoepidemiological studies.

Further examinations should be performed on the reproducibility of clinical observations, especially for EBGM-based signals. Common -path conoscopic interferometry for enhanced picosecond ultrasound detection. We report on a common -path implementation of conoscopic interferometry in picosecond pump-probe reflectometry for simple and efficient detection of picosecond ultrasounds. The interferometric configuration proposed here is greatly simplified, involving only the insertion of a birefringent crystal in a standard reflectometry setup.

Our approach is demonstrated by the optical detection of coherent acoustic phonons propagating through thin metal films under two representative geometries, one a particular case where the crystal slab is part of a sample as substrate of a metal film, and the other a more general case where the crystal slab is independent of the sample as part of the detection system.

We first illustrate the former with a nm thin film of polycrystalline titanium, deposited by physical vapor deposition on top of a 1 mm-thick uniaxial sapphire crystal. A signal-to-noise ratio SNR enhancement of more than 15 dB is achieved compared to conventional reflectometry. Next, the general case is demonstrated with a nm-tungsten film sputtered on a silicon wafer substrate.

More echoes can be discriminated by using the reported approach compared to standard reflectometry, which confirms the improvement in SNR and suggests broad applications for the reported method. Latent fingermark development on a range of porous substrates using ninhydrin analogs--a comparison with ninhydrin and 1,8-diazofluoren. Three relatively new reagents for developing latent fingermarks on porous substrates, 1,2-indandione IND , 5-methylthioninhydrin 5-MTN , and lawsone, are compared with the more widely used ninhydrin and 1,8-diazofluoren DFO.

Results show improved fluorescent fingermark visualization using IND compared with DFO on a range of colored cardboards and thick white paper, thus extending the range of substrates known to yield improved visualization with IND. Adding zinc chloride to IND failed to yield any further improvement in fluorescent fingermark visualization. Lawsone produced fluorescent visible fingermarks only with white substrates, which were inferior to those produced with DFO.

A comparison of the use of vacuum metal deposition versus cyanoacrylate fuming for visualisation of fingermarks and grab impressions on fabrics. Both vacuum metal deposition VMD and cyanoacrylate fuming CAF are techniques used to visualise latent fingermarks on smooth non-porous surfaces such as plastic and glass. VMD was initially investigated in the s as to its effectiveness for visualising prints on fabrics, but was abandoned when radioactive sulphur dioxide was found to be more effective.

We now report on studies to determine whether VMD or CAF is the more effective technique for the detection of marks on fabrics. Four different fabrics, nylon, polyester, polycotton and cotton, were utilised during this study, along with 15 donors who ranged in their age and ability to leave fingermarks , from good to medium to poor, thus reflecting the general population.

Once samples were collected they were kept for a determined time 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21 or 28 days and then treated using either the gold and zinc metal VMD process or standard cyanoacrylate fuming. The smoother fabrics, such as nylon, consistently produced greater ridge detail whereas duller fabrics, like cotton tended only to show empty prints and impressions of where the fabric had been touched, rather than any ridge details.

The majority of fabrics did however allow the development of touch marks that could be targeted for DNA taping which potentially could lead to a DNA profile. Of the two techniques VMD was around 5 times more effective than CAF, producing a greater amount of ridge detail, palmar flexion creases and target areas on more samples and fabrics.

Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Development of chemiresponsive sensors for detection of common homemade explosives. Field-structured chemiresistors FSCRs are polymer based sensors that exhibit a resistance change when exposed to an analyte of interest. The amount of resistance change depends on the polymer-analyte affinity. The affinity can be manipulated by modifying the polymer within the FSCRs.

In this paper, we investigate the ability of chemically modified FSCRs to sense hydrogen peroxide vapor. Five chemical species were chosen based on their hydrophobicity or reactivity with hydrogen peroxide. Of the five investigated, FSCRs modified with allyl methyl sulfide exhibited a significant response to hydrogen peroxide vapor.

For the conditions investigated, the FSCRs modified with allyl methyl sulfide were able to successfully distinguish between water vapor and hydrogen peroxide vapor. A portion of the results presented here will be submitted to the Sensors and Actuators journal. DNA recovery from latent fingermarks treated with an infrared fluorescent fingerprint powder. An endogenous reference gene of common and durum wheat for detection of genetically modified wheat.

To develop a method for detecting GM wheat that may be marketed in the near future, we evaluated the proline-rich protein PRP gene as an endogenous reference gene of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. Real-time PCR analysis showed that only DNA of wheat was amplified and no amplification product was observed for phylogenetically related cereals, indicating that the PRP detection system is specific to wheat.

The intensities of the amplification products and Ct values among all wheat samples used in this study were very similar, with no nonspecific or additional amplification, indicating that the PRP detection system has high sequence stability. The limit of detection was estimated at 5 haploid genome copies. The PRP region was demonstrated to be present as a single or double copy in the common wheat haploid genome.

Furthermore, the PRP detection system showed a highly linear relationship between Ct values and the amount of plasmid DNA, indicating that an appropriate calibration curve could be constructed for quantitative detection of GM wheat. Molecular commonality detection using an artificial enzyme membrane for in situ one-stop biosurveillance.

Biodetection and biosensing have been developed based on the concept of sensitivity toward specific molecules. However, current demand may require more levelheaded or far-sighted methods, especially in the field of biological safety and security. In the fields of hygiene, public safety, and security including fighting bioterrorism, the detection of biological contaminants, e. However, there is as yet no sophisticated method of detecting such contaminants in situ without oversight.

The authors focused their attention on diphosphoric acid anhydride, which is a structure common to all biological phosphoric substances. Interestingly, biological phosphoric substances are peculiar substances present in all living things and include many different substances, e. The authors took this common structure as the basis of their development of an artificial enzyme membrane with selectivity for the structure common to all biological phosphoric substances and studied the possibility of its application to in situ biosurveillance sensors.

The artificial enzyme membrane-based amperometric biosensor developed by the authors can detect various biological phosphoric substances, because it has a comprehensive molecular selectivity for the structure of these biological phosphoric substances. This in situ detection method of the common diphosphoric acid anhydride structure brings a unique advantage to the fabrication of in situ biosurveillance sensors for monitoring biological contaminants, e.

Development of a PCR assay to detect cyprinid herpesvirus 1 in koi and common carp. Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 CyHV1 infects all scaled and color varieties of common carp Cyprinus carpio, including koi. While it is most often associated with unsightly growths known as 'carp pox,' the underlying lesion epidermal hyperplasia can arise from a variety of disease processes. CyHV1-induced epidermal hyperplasia may occur transiently in response to water temperature, and thus histopathology cannot be used in isolation to assess CyHV1 infection status.

The PCR assay generates a bp amplicon and reliably detects down to 10 copies of control plasmid DNA sequence analytic sensitivity. Viral DNA was detected in both normal appearing and grossly affected epidermal tissues from koi experiencing natural epizootics. Analysis of the thymidine kinase gene sequences determined for 7 PCR-positive carp originating from disparate geographical regions identified 3 sequence types, with 1 type occurring in both koi and common carp.

A novel monodisperse SiO2 C-dot for the rapid and facile identification of latent fingermarks using self-quenching resistant solid-state fluorescence. Solid powder fluorescence shows great potential for application in medicine, biology, and engineering, especially in the identification of latent fingermarks in forensic science. However, conventional developing methods suffer from some drawbacks, such as low contrast, low sensitivity, low selectivity, and high toxicity.

To conquer these challenges, novel SiO2 C-dot microspheres were prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method by using citric acid as a carbon source and aminosilane as a nitrogen source. Interestingly, the results showed that the resultant powders possess good monodispersity, high fluorescence emission, and resistance to self-quenching.

Additionally, the mechanism for the solid-state fluorescence of SiO2 C-dot compounds was also investigated. More importantly, the fingermarks on various surfaces, including transparent glasses, ceramic tiles, transparent plastics, aluminum alloys, plastic cards, painted woods, artificial leathers, and Chinese paper money, developed by the powders have indicated well-defined papillary ridges under a nm UV lamp.

The novel strategy of using monodisperse SiO2 C-dot microspheres as a fluorescent label for developing latent fingermarks showed greater advantages compared to conventional methods, which was also demonstrated using the automatic fingerprint identification system. It is simple, rapid, low-cost, nontoxic, and effective, and is expected to be a promising alternative for the development of latent fingerprints in forensic science.

Determination of efficacy of fingermark enhancement reagents; the use of propyl chloroformate for the derivatization of fingerprint amino acids extracted from paper. The analysis of the constituents of fingerprints has been described numerous times, mainly with the purpose of determining the aging effect on fingerprints or showing the differences between donors or groups of donors. In this paper we describe the use of derivatized amino acids to determine the efficacy of the visualization reagents 1,8-diazafluorenone DFO and ninhydrin.

At present certain conditions are used for the application of these reagents, as determined by trial-and-error investigations, to the effect on fingerprints. The recovery of amino acids from a porous surface can be used as a measure for the efficacy of a visualization agent. In this paper we describe a method for the determination of the amount of amino acid left after reaction with well known fingerprint visualization reagents.

This will allow a more scientific approach to method development for fingermark enhancement techniques. Furthermore, investigations on the influence of the concentration of fingermark amino acids, the order of application of and exposure time to reagents and the influence of age of the amino acids were carried out.

These studies have resulted in a broader understanding of the mechanism involved in visualization of fingermarks using DFO and ninhydrin. Background and Objective The onset and progression of early tooth decay is often preventable with dental sealants. However, occasionally decay progresses underneath the sealant.

Current technology does not permit monitoring of potential lesion progression or arrest. Dental sealants themselves mask the visual cues that identify early tooth decay, and radiographs are not sufficiently sensitive. Therefore clinicians can be reluctant to use dental sealant. The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the ability of dentists to detect decay beneath commonly used dental sealants using Optical Coherence Tomography OCT imaging.

OCT and radiographic images were scored separately. The gold standard was histopathological diagnosis from the serial sections. Results After 90 mins training, pre-standardized dentists were able to detect tooth decay more accurately using OCT than with visual or radiographic examination. Detection using OCT was somewhat better prior to sealant placement than afterwards.

This effect varied in size depending on the type of sealant used. Radiographic diagnosis was also less accurate after sealant placement. Of the four dental sealants, Delton provided excellent positive predictive value and the best post-sealant negative predictive values.

Conclusion In this ex vivo study, dentists were able to detect tooth decay beneath four commonly. Detecting free-mass common -mode motion induced by incident gravitational waves. In this paper we show that information on both the differential and common mode free-mass response to a gravitational wave can provide important information on discriminating the direction of the gravitational wave source and between different theories of gravitation.

The conventional Michelson interferometer scheme only measures the differential free-mass response. By changing the orientation of the beam splitter, it is possible to configure the detector so it is sensitive to the common -mode of the free-mass motion. The proposed interferometer is an adaptation of the Fox-Smith interferometer. A major limitation to the new scheme is its enhanced sensitivity to laser frequency fluctuations over the conventional, and we propose a method of cancelling these fluctuations.

The configuration could be used in parallel to the conventional differential detection scheme with a significant sensitivity and bandwidth. The method does not require iterations. It is very robust and easy to implement both in 2D and 3D case. Few studies have assessed viral contamination in the rooms of hospital wards.

This cross-sectional study evaluated the air and objects in patient-occupied rooms in pediatric wards for the presence of common respiratory viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Swab samples were collected from the surfaces of 5 different types of objects in the patients' rooms. All air and swab samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the presence of the above pathogens.

All pathogens except enterovirus were detected in the air, on the objects, or in both locations in the patients' rooms. Both adenovirus and M pneumoniae were detected at very high rates, with high concentrations, on all sampled objects. Appropriate infection control measures should be strictly implemented when caring for such patients. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that infects Hepialidae caterpillars, mummifying the larvae and producing characteristic fruiting bodies stromata that are processed into one of the most valued traditional Chinese medicines TCM.

The product commands a very high price due to a high demand but a very limited supply. Adulteration with other fungi is a common problem and there is a need to test preparation for the presence of the correct fungus. In the current study, a PCR-based approach for the identification of O. The segments is bp in size and is likely to be amplified even in materials where processing led to DNA fragmentation. Primer development was based on the alignment of sequence data generated from a total of 89 samples of O.

Species-specific primer pairs were also developed and tested for detection of the common adulterants, Cordyceps gunnii, Cordyceps cicadae, Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps liangshanensis and Ophiocordyceps nutans. The collection of primers developed in the present study will be useful for the authentication of preparation claiming to only contain O.

The present work investigates the electrochemical determination of cocaine in the presence of levamisole, one of the most common adulterants found in cocaine street samples. Levamisole misleads cocaine color tests, giving a blue color positive test even in the absence of cocaine.

Moreover, the electrochemical detection of cocaine is also affected by the presence of levamisole, with a suppression of the oxidation signal of cocaine. When levamisole is present in the sample in ratios higher than , the cocaine signal is no longer detected , thus leading to false negative results. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to investigate if the signal suppression is due to the formation of a complex between cocaine and levamisole in bulk solution.

Strategies to eliminate this suppressing effect are further suggested in this manuscript. Both these strategies have been successfully applied for the simultaneous detection of cocaine and levamisole in three street samples on unmodified graphite disposable electrodes. Kullback-Leibler divergence for detection of rare haplotype common disease association. Rare haplotypes may tag rare causal variants of common diseases; hence, detection of such rare haplotypes may also contribute to our understanding of complex disease etiology.

Because rare haplotypes frequently result from common single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs , focusing on rare haplotypes is much more economical compared with using rare single-nucleotide variants SNVs from sequencing, as SNPs are available and 'free' from already amassed genome-wide studies.

Further, associated haplotypes may shed light on the underlying disease causal mechanism, a feat unmatched by SNV-based collapsing methods. In recent years, data mining approaches have been adapted to detect rare haplotype association. However, as they rely on an assumed underlying disease model and require the specification of a null haplotype, results can be erroneous if such assumptions are violated.

In this paper, we present a haplotype association method based on Kullback-Leibler divergence hapKL for case-control samples. The idea is to compare haplotype frequencies for the cases versus the controls by computing symmetrical divergence measures.

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SpamAssasin antispam solution ClamAV antivirus engine. All core functionality listed above is free. Please note that this post is not the full documentation for the server and detailed guides and information will be posted in the coming days as it is created. A Full Reset The server is being completely reset.

This includes money, experience, and the worlds. The only exception to this is the donor ranks which will persist through the upgrade. Class levels are not able to be maintained due to changes with the class system that will be outlined shortly. The map reset allows everyone to enjoy the full survival experience of stormcraft once again. The Nexus The most striking change you will notice when you connect to the server is the lack of world around spawn. When you spawn you arrive to the tutorial section of the spawn in a world known as the nexus.

This tutorial is much like the one at the spawn on stormcraft today however much more in-depth and informative. Once you complete the starting tutorial you are teleported to the servers main spawn. The main spawn, a floating island is surrounded by four smaller islands that link to the other sections of the server. Stormcraft now runs 8 different worlds that encompass all aspects of the server. I will review them each in further detail bellow. Each worlds island at the nexus contains a large portal that teleports you to the specific world.

The Survival World The survival world much like the current world is traversed by the use of minispawns. However on SC 3. Currently there are 8 open portals to various biomes. As the areas around these minispawns fill in more will be added to accept new players. The Minigames World Like before stormcraft is home to mini games to pass your non survival minutes on the server. However mini games on the server are bigger and better than ever.

We have added the popular mini game paintball. The server is home to four unique maps that are rotated through. Users can join the pinball lobby and enjoy hours of fun. Survival games is back, join the massive survival games arena and battle to the death! May the odd be ever in your favour. Users can now experience sky block on the sky block mini game world. Unlike other mini games sky block can be left and returned to at any time. Users can survive on their own islands and even invite friends to play with and complete challenges.

An all new mob arena with new classes and waves has been created. There is also the ever popular war hub which allows the use of various pvp maps in either capture the flag, team death match or bomb mode games. Finally an all new mini game will be added in the coming weeks: Infection! In an effort to continue to improve and expand our mini games world we are accepting user made maps.

Simply email the map file to baffu stormcraft. Expect an email response if your map is being used and credit for making the map on the server! In the future a forum thread may accept the maps. The Market The market world is home to brand new ready to be used shops situated in our brand new shopping complex.

In an effort to reduce the quantity of abandoned shops a weekly tax for holding a shop lot has been introduced. Players who are inactive and eventually run out of money for tax will have their shops automatically removed and restored to fresh shops ready for purchase.

Also on the market world is the bank of stormcraft that allows you to trade diamonds iron and gold. The Resources World The resources world exists for one simple reason. To preserve this survival world for a much longer time period. The resources world is a separate world intended to house all mining and gathering operations! Feel like harvesting 20, sand no problem, because the resources world is free to be completely and utterly torn apart.

Whats more, when it becomes depleted it can be reset easily without affecting the survival world at all! Classes System The stormcraft classes system is much the same as it was before but has a key addition. Class achievements. As you level each skill you near various milestones. Every few levels you gain will grant you a moderate sized reward in bolts.

When you reach the "milestone" levels of or in any level special rewards are given. For levels and larger rewards in bolts are given. For levels and special custom items are given out as achievement items. For example the adventurer can unlock a special "battle brick" at level that has a very high knock back enchantment. This is just one example of the many custom items that are distributed. The Economy The server has switched to a better economy plugin so be sure to read the signs at spawn for the new commands.

Wild Boss Mobs One of the more interesting additions to stormcraft is the new boss mobs. Throughout the normal world boss mobs have the possibility of spawning. They are recognizable by the fire particle effect around them. Boss mobs like those in the mob arena have special abilities to use and are more difficult to kill then regular mobs. They add more diversity to exploring the wilderness. Magic Magic is bigger and better than ever. Users can choose from one of 5 wizard paths and level their path to unlock further spells and larger mana reserves.

Killing mobs on the server drops a special magic xp that looks like a nether star. In addition to these drops mobs have a chance of dropping various mana potions. The magic system is now as large as the classes system. Full information on magic will be available on the magic page of our website shortly.

Land Protection Users are able to buy the brand new protection stones to protect their land. Although expensive they allow full control over your land. You can even use them to enable PvP in your home if you wish to. Protection stones can be purchased on the market world. They are very useful to town owners and allow them to control building permissions in their town!

Other Changes - Horses can be protected and stored in a virtual stable. Check out the donors page for more info. We are currently working on the stormcraft adventure map that will be playable on the server in the future, if you are interested in helping please stay tuned to this site, we will be posting more details soon.

Additional mini games will begin to pop up as time progresses, and remember you can submit your own mini game maps to be used on the server to baffu stormcraft. Full documentation on all the changes that have come to stormcraft will be updated across our website and soon to be existent wiki over the next few days.

Special mentions go out to FireW0lf and Dantheawesome for the consistent efforts that helped make 3. On behalf of everyone that worked on Stormcraft 3. The server is now running 1. In other news work on the server update is going swimingly and we expect to be ready in just under two weeks, remember thats just a rough estimate! The server is now ru The server is now running Minecraft 1. You will need to download the new client from minecraft. In other news, work on the exiting Stormcraft 3.

After a long wait mostly due to exams we are finally testing new features for stormcraft! I do not want to give too much away so soon but I can tell you we are working on a more meaningful and complete minigames world with goals and uses for items, the world will feature a separate inventory. The general gameplay experience in the wild and cities is also being enhanced.

Work on the RP world will resume once we have completed the 3. Existing posts will be looked through, but feel free to bump the thread of any old posts that you wish to bring attention to, or update your old posts. I do not like setting firm time lines for updates but we anticipate the update to be ready in about weeks. Following that the RP world work will be kicked into full swing, as it is a large project we are unsure as to the time frame, but mid to late summer will be our goal.

Personally I am really exited about the 3. Server Running 1. I forgot to post about this yesterday The server is now running the latest version of minecraft. So upgrade all you like. We have noticed that the spawn rates of animals are a little high and will be looking to fix that soon, for now enjoy the extra pork! Server Upgrade and Summer Plans Our community and apetite for heavy plugins have grown. So as is always the case with these two factors we are upgrading the server. Now what does this mean for you?

Funny you should ask, this means a more powerful server that should be noticeably faster! The upgrade is underway as I am writing this update. In a little while we will have to shut the server down for about hours to transfer everything. After this process is complete we will be up and running on the new server.

We will post further details as the transfers progress as it is available to us, so stay tuned! Now looking forward. I thought I would let you all know again what we have planned for this summer. As some of you may know stormcraft will be celebrating its 2 year anniversary mid summer during August! The Adventure world formerly known as the RP world will be played like most adventure maps for minecraft. However due to this map being hosted on a server, amazing plugins and cool stuff can be done.

Leading to a really awesome map with fun stuff. I don't want to give a lot away now, but trust me, its gonna be really fun! Those interested in helping build or with the story line can apply on the forums. Secondly, we will be expanding our reach on minigames.

Currently warhub mob arena spleef and hunger games arenas are here to occupy our players, but we hope to be expanding on warhub, hunger games and adding about new games to our array-o-fun! Finally we will be working on building areas around spawns, and promoting the use of user made cities.

Alright, stay tuned for server updates regarding the transfer. They will be posed soon hopefully. Thats all for now folks! Edit: The server is now transfered and running. You may not be able to connect with mc. If you can not use Edit2: The server has been having a few issues on the new box.

It is running better than ever but does seem to sometimes crash for a few mins. There is minimal loss in the crashes ad the map saves every few mins and plugins save instantly on changes. So it should not be terrible.

Sadly the final solution to this which is a detailed look through all the plugins can not take place until sunday at the earliest. For now just deal with it :P sorry. And email me if you were doing anything specific when it crashed.

That may help. Thanks guys! Server is currently offline. We are working on fixing the recent lag issues we have been having. This post will be updated when the server is back online. EDIT: Server is now online again. We are aware the poor performance is still present.

We have identified the problem however the solution is not available until monday. We apologize for the inconvenience but at the moment its out of my hands. We need to wait for monday. This downtime is to fix the problems we have been having. Double XP Day! March 27th is our first 2 times XP day! Partially in celebration of my birthday, mainly as an excuse to test out special XP rates for weekend events Enjoy!

Server Updated to 1. For those of you who do not know If you are interested in learning about the plethora of things that have been added and changed watch this video! If you discover any issues on the server please email baffu stormcraft. As you may already k As you may already know 1. This new update brings a whole bunch of new functionality to mine craft. Sadly however when many new things are added the time it takes bukkit to update grows. The server will be updated when bukkit is , this means that we need to wait for a stable release of bukkit to arrive.

Until then you will need to connect with a 1. If you have upgraded google "downgrading minecraft to 1. In other news, we have been rebuilding spawn. Expect teleporters to the minispawns to replace the commands, the removal of old and abandoned buildings and a new look!

Please note that we may not be able to update until a beta build or a recommended build exists. Weekly Round Up - March 8th The coming two weeks will be of much progress. Our focus currently is maintaining the server. Spawn city and the surroundings have become tired. Information posted on the server needs updating.

But mainly townships need to come to be. We are currently working on cleaning up the terrain and are already making amazing progress! Over the next few days you may notice the beginnings of some new buildings, we will be working to bring more user made content like shops right into the heart of spawn. In the following weeks work on the new minigames and the RP world will be more prominent, but that is for another post. Right now our focus is on polishing what we do have already a ton! Whats we have planned!

Hello everyone, I th Hello everyone, I thought it was about time I posted some information on what we have planned for the server! Recently there have been quite a few more players online than we previously had. This is great in terms of popularity but has made clear a few things we need to work on, and we intend to work on improving a few things.

It is a large undertaking but it will be well worth it. It is currently no where near finished so we have no estimate to when it will be read. Currently we plan on running the map on the main server as a second map people will access with a balloon! It is possible MCMMO will be disabled for the world and certain items will not be transferred between worlds. Magic spells will be gained as you complete the world. PvP Systems: It has become apparent that a system to further control PvP is needed due to the increased amounts of players.

The old methods of managing everything manually has become more difficult as there have been larger quantities of players. Firstly we plan on adding some method of players finding free land that is a distance from spawn and being able to bring their friends there. This may be completed with a small minispawns around the world with warping to them or possible with balloons.

The details have yet to decided fully. We are also considering a way to encourage players to work together on cities and towns without forcing them to. We are considering adding some sort of light weight town management system to the server where users would be able to protect their towns and add members themselves. Benefits of owning a town may include as mentioned above land protection, a balloon to their town, ability to request regeneration of city mines or forests, town purchases of a livestock farm ect.

Towns would possibly cost some count of bolts to hold. The details have yet to be worked out. Existing Balloons: We will be working too weed out the inactive balloons from the world to free then up for new cities that will be springing up soon hopefully. Inactive and Destroyed Land: There are areas around spawn with a multitude of abandoned homes and areas striped of their resources.

We will be working to regenerate and refresh these areas so that they may accept new users! Christmas Events! We have a TON of things planned this year, read on for an event list and how to sign up Events List: Pig Racing - Race pigs around the brand new pig racing track built just for the holidays!

In it In its current state we are unable to update the server to it just yet. For now we will leave the server running 1. If you wish to play 1. Simply use this launcher to log in to StormCraft: All Previous Versions When you download the launcher, click options, then click jar downloader. Scroll through the list of versions and select Final 1. You can now select that jar file on the main screen and log in. Its as simple as that! December 12th - The Magic is Back! After a long while without magic spells we are bringing it back.

Each class has been given one spell, however the paladin class has two. Your can learn more about each spell ok the classes page. In other news we are very close to launching our brand new server forums. Stay tuned for details of when we are launching the new forums! The server has been having a few issues today and is currently offline until the hosting company is able to fix the disk permission errors.

Standby here and on twitter. Thanks for your understanding. Server is now online. EDIT: Server has been shut of by host for some hardware maintenance, talk about bad timing. Server No Server Now Running 1. Check back here and at twitter. You can track bukkit at dl. We are transferring to a larger server, yay! I will post here when the server is up. Edit the server is now online, please report any issues to baffu stormcraft. Stormcraft Promotional Video This cool video was made by hotpost.

Todays feature spotlight is focussed on the Mob Arena! For those of you who do not know, the mob arena consists of a large space with a few obstacles. At a set interval mobs are spawned at random location! Your goal is to survive as many waves as possible in the mob arena. With each passing wave the loot you will collect at the end grows! Heres how to play: 1. Select your class, there are many to chose from with many different rolls. Click the sign with the class name you want. Punch the iron block to say you are ready.

When all players have clicked the iron block, the game begins. This is the first of a line of new segments on the stormcraft website! We will be spotlighting things like cities people and homes! So here we go! Todays build spotlight is dantheawesome's "The Mystic Spyre" We look forward to seeing dan's city when it is done, if it is anything like his home we are in for an amazing city!

The server is currently down for maintenance and it is taking longer than expected. Sorry for the inconvenience this has caused but it was necessary. I will post here when the server is online again. The server is now online again thanks for your time.

Note however that using any IP other than mc. New Map Launched - Come and play! The new server is now ready for you! Along with the new map we have tweaked the classes system! The class adventurer has been added. Read more about it on the classes page! Take time to re-read the rules again as many have been changed. Our server domains mc.

So you may need to connect with the server ip until then. Use: Also, if you want to use the old server, it will be up for 1 - 2 days more, however you will need to connect with the ip The 1. Most of you by now know that we are getting a new map and moving to a brand new server same host in a few days.

The new server has more ram and seems to be running much faster than the old server. I am currently working on getting all the plugins installed. Once bukkit releases a build of craftbukkit for 1. When all that is done we will change mc.

Until then you can still play on the old server. Along with the new map, we are restarting our staffing and will be moving to a new forums with 0 ads! More information on that to come. We hope bukkit will have a dev build by tommorow and if all goes well we may move over to the new server by the 2nd or 3rd. More information to come! New Map Live! July 1st! The new map is now l The new map is now live, all the work is done and now, you can play!

Here is the change log: Moved class building to new world Removed factions for now Created new balloon tower Created new classes building Rp Magic and Quests are all being rolled into one Rp world launching in a few weeks Arenas moved to new map I hope you enjoy the fresh map! Update: Work on moving to the new map is well under way, however it is taking longer than expected. Suspending the Factions world until further notice Adding a new Creative world - More information to come No hunger games map yet So to recap the server will be whitelisted for work June 25th th.

If the work takes longer than expected I will post that here and tell you, if it does take longer it would only be around 1 day more. A New Beginning - Stormcraft in the summer Edit: Most features for moving to the new map have been copied to a flat map for now, most have been rebuilt together! They look great.

We are only waiting on mojang to release the 1.

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